|An 1820 Draisine|
It had two wheels and could be steered with a rudder like mechanism on the front. It did not have pedals, so it basically allowed the user to walk faster. Roads in 1819 were not at all smooth, so users tended to ride them on the sidewalks. After complaints by pedestrians, many cities banned them from sidewalks. It wasn't until around 1860 that someone finally came up with the bright idea of adding pedals.
Here is an interesting 15-minute video that describes the draisine in the first half, and covers bicycle evolution since them in the second half.